Monday, January 20, 2020

How Does William Blake convey his anger in the poem London ? Essay

How Does William Blake convey his anger in the poem London ? The poem 'London' by William Blake, relfects his feelings upon the society that he was living in , and how despreratly it needed help. Blake thought that all of the poverty and misfortune that was happening on the streets were caused by the political opression in London. Blake was angered by what he saw in his homeland as other countries started fighting for their indipendence and equality whilst his country stayed dormant, eventhough he felt that there was a serious need for serious action. Eventhough Blake wasn't a typical romantic writer, he too possesed the same beliefs of fighting for what one believes in, and the urge to be liberated from the opression of society. So, by being a writer of the romantic period, watching a controlled and restricted society not showing an intent to break free and fight against the monarchy, angered him and inspired him to convey his ideas and feelings throuh the poem 'London'. In the poem, Blake travels through London and descibes what he sees. And as a result, he sees a severly opressed society that is caused by the authority, such as royalty and the church. This is as Blake sees that even the 'streets' and the 'thames' are 'chartered' and governed by the authorities. This is furthur emphasised by his repitition of the word 'chartered' which then gives the reader an image of the lack of freedom that the people in London posses as the 'streets' is a metahor for the general public while the 'thames' represents their freedom, this is as rivers are normally associated with free will while the 'streets' are gernerally associated with the lower class in society. So, by describing the streets and the thames ... ...y that the monarcy creates. I feel that the poem 'London' effectively convyed William Blakes anger towards the society and his feelings about it. This is as Blake is awear of everything that goes on in the society, and the poem clearly expresses his repulsiveness towards the political opression imposed by the monarchy. However, Blake does not soley balme the monarcy, but also the people of his country. This is because he saw all the other countries that previously suffered the opression of a monarcy, fight for their rights and equailty. Eventhough the monarcy did impose rules upon society, Blake strongly believed that people could overthrow the authorities if they were to truly try and do so. Hence, a part of Blake's anger was conveyed by descibing the self-imprisonment of the people, and how they could break free anytime, but still chose not to do so.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Essay

Artificial intelligence (AI) results to simulation of intellectual practice such as comprehension, rationalization and learning symbolic information in context. In AI, the automation or programming of all aspects of human cognition is considered from its foundations in cognitive science through approaches to symbolic and sub-symbolic AI, natural language processing, computer vision, and evolutionary or adaptive systems. (Neumann n. d.) AI considered being an extremely intricate domain of problems which during preliminary stages in the problem-solving phase of this nature, the problem itself may be viewed poorly. A precise picture of the problem can only be seen upon interactive and incremental refinement of course, after you have taken the initial attempt to solve the mystery. AI always comes hand in hand with machine logistics. How else could mind act appropriately but with the body. In this case, a machine takes the part of the body. In a bit, this literature will be tackling about AI implemented through Neural Network. The author deems it necessary though to tackle Machine learning and thus the succeeding paragraphs. Machine Learning is primarily concerned with designing and developing algorithms and procedures that allow machines to â€Å"learn† – either inductive or deductive, which, in general, is its two types. At this point, we will be referring to machines as computers since in the world nowadays, the latter are the most widely used for control. Hence, we now hone our definition of Machine Learning as the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. (Dietterich n. d. ) Machine learning techniques are grouped into different categories basing on the expected outcome. Common types include Supervised, Unsupervised, Semi-supervised or Reinforcement learning. There is also the Transduction method and the ‘Learning to learn’ scheme. A section of theoretical computer science, Computational Learning Theory is the investigation on the computation of algorithms of Machine Learning including its efficiency. Researches on Machine Learning focuses mainly on the automatic extraction of information data, through computational and statistical methods. It is very much correlated not only to theoretical computer science as well as data mining and statistics. Supervised learning is the simplest learning task. It is an algorithm to which it is ruled by a function that automatically plots inputs to expected outputs. The task of supervised learning is to construct a classifier given a set of classified training examples (Dietterich n. d.). The main challenge for supervised learning is that of generalization that a machine is expected in approximating the conduct that a function will exhibit which maps out a connection towards a number of classes through comparison of IO samples of the said function. When many plot-vector pairs are interrelated, a decision tree is derived which aids into viewing how the machine behaves with the function it currently holds. One advantage of decision trees is that, if they are not too large, they can be interpreted by humans. This can be useful both for gaining insight into the data and also for validating the reasonableness of the learned tree (Dietterich n. d. ). In unsupervised learning, manual matching of inputs is not utilized. Though, it is most often distinguished as supervised learning and it is one with an unknown output. This makes it very hard to decide what counts as success and suggests that the central problem is to find a suitable objective function that can replace the goal of agreeing with the teacher (Hinton & Sejnowski 1999). Simple classic examples of unsupervised learning include clustering and dimensionality reduction. (Ghahramani 2004) Semi-supervised learning entails learning situations where is an ample number of labelled data as compared to the unlabelled data. These are very natural situations, especially in domains where collecting data can be cheap (i. e. the internet) but labelling can be very expensive/time consuming. Many of the approaches to this problem attempt to infer a manifold, graph structure, or tree-structure from the unlabelled data and use spread in this structure to determine how labels will generalize to new unlabelled points. (Ghahramani 2004) Transduction is comparable to supervised learning in predicting new results with training inputs and outputs, as well as, test inputs – accessible during teaching, as basis, instead of behaving in accordance to some function. All these various types of Machine-Learning techniques can be used to fully implement Artificial Intelligence for a robust Cross-Language translation. One thing though, this literature is yet to discuss the planned process of machine learning this research shall employ, and that is by Neural Networks.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Critical Pedagogy ( Cp ) - 1728 Words

Critical pedagogy (CP) is after fostering a critical and analytical lens which may suggest diverse possibilities of appreciating the active relationship between teachers-learners and teaching-learning processes. Without thinking critically and working critically, the monotonous process of systems may keep going. Human beings are not robots or machines to be given some instructions by a designer in advance to run for a while in a routine and repetitive manner. They are ashamed of staying still and stagnant because they may feel rotten. Everything in the world is considered as a process, as all human beings go through a process to see reality from diverse sources, a process that is continuous, changing, and unstable. They are not a†¦show more content†¦Freire gave a new standpoint on education and changed the perspectives of stakeholders. He raised the issue of empowerment, social change and transformation, dialogic teaching, praxis, humanization, problem-posing education, dem ocratic and liberating education as the cornerstones of critical pedagogy (Freire, 1970; Robert Freire, 2008; Shore Freire, 1987). In addition, he rooted up the concept of banking model in which it deemed students as empty agents to be filled by the knowledge of their teachers. The following attitudes and practices are the buzz words of banking education: (a) The teacher teaches and the students are taught; (b) The teacher knows everything and the students know nothing; (c) The teacher thinks and the students are thought about; (d) The teacher talks and the students listen-meekly; (e) The teacher disciplines and the students are disciplined; (f) The teacher chooses and enforces his choice, and the students comply; (g) The teacher acts and the students have the illusion of acting through the action of the teacher; (h) The teacher chooses the program content, and the students (who were not consulted) adapt to it; (i) The teacher confuses the authority of knowledge with his own professional authority, which he sets in opposition to the freedom of the students; (j) The teacher is the subject of the learning process, while the pupils are mere objects (Freire, 1970, p. 73). The pillars of critical pedagogy are to increaseShow MoreRelatedCommunity Health Nursing Final Exam Study Guide Essay15874 Words   |  64 Pages-- 1. Health care for homeless, why is it so costly? They typically have to stay in the hospital for a longer amount of time because they have a lot more co-morbidities that need to be treated. Being brought to the ED is extremely expensive. Critical interventions are very costly, and so are all the diagnostic tests that must be done. They usually don’t have insurance. High mental heath issues in the homeless population. High risk for infections, trauma, violence. Don’t age very well. WhereRead More_x000C_Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis355457 Words   |  1422 Pagesare arithmetic and graphing exercises. They become statistics problems only when a context gives them meaning and allows for interpretation. While this makes for a text that may appear â€Å"wordy† when compared to traditional mathematics texts, it is a critical and necessary component of a modern statistics text. Examples and exercises with overly simple settings do not allow students to practice interpreting results in authentic situations or give students the experience necessary to be able to use statistical

Friday, December 27, 2019

The Tragedy Of Doctor Faustus - 1856 Words

The story of Doctor Faustus is one of a man who is not great in the traditional, tragical sense but great of mind, an intellectual. Faustus makes a pact with the devil, mistaking Hell for Heaven and mistakenly believing himself to be reprobate. With this unholy pact Faustus chases after power but with each attempt he sinks lower and lower, eventually succumbing to base desire. Faustus ends his 24 years with an attempt to repent however he is dragged to Hell and the play then ends with a caution from the chorus. The Tragical History of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus is an Elizabethan tragedy. This is because the protagonist in the play dies in a catastrophic manner that is not merely an accident, in Faustus’s case being dragged to Hell screaming. The second element of an Elizabethan tragedy is that protagonist must have a fatal flaw (hamartia) which is the cause of their death, Faustus demonstrates many of the 7 deadly sins, principally hubris, greed and sloth. Through th e play, Marlowe also demonstrates the typical aim of an Aristotelian tragedy, Catharsis. Catharsis is ‘the purification and purgation of emotions—especially pity and fear—through art or any extreme change in emotion that results in renewal and restoration’ . This is the effect that Marlowe presents at the end of the play, through the chorus the audience is meant to learn from the lesson of Faustus and be convinced in any conclusions that Marlowe has penned as to the central themes of the play. OneShow MoreRelatedThe Tragedy Of Christopher Marlowe s Doctor Faustus1416 Words   |  6 PagesThe following essay will examine the actions of the characters within Christopher Marlowe’s drama text Doctor Faustus in terms of witchcraft, lust, and other motivational forces, to come to a conclusion on which force is the most influential. Within the text, witchcraft is one of the main forces that influences the actions of the character Faustus himself. At the beginning of the text, Faustus becomes displeased with the knowledge he has so far gained, and aspires for more. He reviews all of theRead MoreDr Faustus as a Tragedy855 Words   |  4 PagesQ.1. Discuss Dr Faustus as a tragedy. Tragedy – Definition Aristotle defines a tragedy as a ‘representation of an action which is important, complete and limited in length. It is enacted not recited and by arousing pity and fear, it gives an outlet to emotions of this type.’ However, for the Elizabethans, more specifically for Marlowe and Shakespeare, tragedy is not a restrictive view of human excellence or weakness as the Greeks are often inclined to present but an affirmative view of humanRead MoreAnalysis of the Actions of Macbeth and Doctor Faustus Based on Free Will and Fate1677 Words   |  7 Pagesof Macbeth and Doctor Faustus in Shakespeare’s and Marlowe’s plays come from the characters themselves or whether they were following a predetermined fate. In the play The Tragedy of Macbeth, written by William Shakespeare, each character’s destiny, or fate, seems to be predetermined by the supernatural and unpreventable by any actions meant to stop it from occurring. The concept of fate is a large component in many Aristotelian Tragedies, such as Macbeth. However, in the tragedy, The Tragicall HistoryRead More The tragical history of Doctor Faustus Essay1562 Words   |  7 PagesThe tragical history of Doctor Faustus, which follow ed in the wake of Tamburlaine, is acclaimed by all as Marlowes best play in which the leaven of fertile poetry and fearless imagination works wonders. Introduction: The tragical history of Doctor Faustus, which followed in the wake of Tamburlaine, is acclaimed by all as Marlowes best play in which the leaven of fertile poetry and fearless imagination works wonders. The idea of a passionate struggle to reach beyond the grasp of Read MoreWilliam Shakespeare s The Play Everyman 1275 Words   |  6 Pagesmeaning of life. Similarly, we can also see the shadow of a philosophical trace in Christopher Marlowe’s play, Doctor Faustus. The play personifies good and evil. The devil will fight for the soul of human beings, while our soul remain indecisive. Soon after, high lights appeared in the instance when the soul makes a decision. Even though both works are excellent, but I fell that Dr. Faustus made a bigger impact on me. Although both work revolved around death, sins, and judgment of God when He triesRead MoreDoctor Faustus : The Relationship Of Mephastophilis And Faustus1597 Words   |  7 PagesDoctor Faustus: The Relationship of Mephastophilis and Faustus In Christopher Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus, the tragic protagonist Faustus finds himself tired of his previous pursuits in logic, medicine, law and religion. He falls upon the decision to explore a new and taboo area of knowledge: the black arts. Once he settles on this idea, he begins a relentless endeavor to quench his thirst for higher knowledge, wealth and success through learning supernatural powers. Alas, his admirable ambition andRead More A Comparison of Everyman and Christopher Marlowes Doctor Faustus1145 Words   |  5 PagesA Comparison of Everyman and Christopher Marlowes Doctor Faustus Everyman and Doctor Faustus are both Morality Plays, these are specifically plays that existed within the Medieval period. They were popular during this period as they were intended to instruct the audience in the Christian way and attitudes to life. The morality play is essentially an allegory written in dramatic form. In the fourteenth Century, morality plays were mainly based on the seven deadly sins as in everyman withRead MoreDoctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe1359 Words   |  5 PagesWhat would you sell your soul for? A question Faustus had to ask when he wanted to gain more than just knowledge. England during the 1550’s had gone through many changes with religion, leaving the people unsure of what they wanted. When Elizabeth finally claimed throne and stayed Queen for a forty- five year reign, there were stable religious changes. For an escape and way of entertainment, society would attend plays. Due to the changing events during the Elizabethan era, plays were a stress relieverRead MoreDr.Faustus as a Tragedy Relevant to All Times1186 Words   |  5 PagesDiscuss Dr.Faustus as a tragedy relevant to all times. The word tragedy finds its origin in Greek spirit,theory and mythology in the word tragedia. Tragedy tends to bring to mind the thoughts of pity and sympathy. According to Aristotle, the famous Greek philosopher emotions of pity and fear are aroused while watching or listening to a tragedy. Tragedy is a play that represents a central action or plot that is serious and significant. These plays involve a main character that is a normal humanRead MoreShakespeare s King Lear And Marlowe s Doctor Faustus1543 Words   |  7 PagesShakespeare’s King Lear and Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus are two examples of early modern texts, one a tragedy and the other a morality play respectively, which deal with the theme of power at the crux of its narrative. Between both texts it is evident that different characters utilize their power or authority differently – some ‘unwisely’ whilst some ‘maliciously’. In either case, the use of power progresses the plays and drives the majority of main characters. To begin with, both plays incorporate

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The National School Lunch Program - 1019 Words

The most essential part to the future success of America is the children of America, and their education level. According to the National Center for Children in Poverty, â€Å"about fifteen million children in the united states, twenty-one percent of all children, live in families below the federal poverty threshold,† (www.nccp.org). Majority of these children will go to school hungry, which will affect their performance in school. The National School Lunch Program provides lunch to help feed them and keep them focus during the day. This program also benefits farmers and the economy by raising the quantity needed to be supplied to keep up with the demand of the schools. Many children who live under the poverty line rely on their school to†¦show more content†¦The schools must also meet the federal nutrition requirement to serve food, to provide students with a healthy diet. Even though schools must meet the national requirement they also have some leeway, â€Å"feder al meal requirements, decision about what specific foods to serve and how they are prepared are made by local school food authorities† (www.fns.usda.org). This allows students to have a variety of different meals each day. Over the years there has been an increase in the school lunch program. In 2014, â€Å"The National School Lunch Program provided low-cost or free lunches to over 30.3 million children daily at a cost of nearly $12.6 billion,† (ers.usda.gov). Because of the popularity of the National School Lunch Program, the government expanded its meals to breakfast and after school snacks. The same children who meet the requirement to participate in the National School Lunch Program can now come to school early and get breakfast. Also if they participate in after school activities, the school also provides healthy snack options. There has been a growing support for the National School Lunch Program because it provides kids with healthy food options. With the growing obesity problem in the United States, the National School Program helps children get into a healthy eating habit. The popularity continues to rise for the National School lunch program because not only does it help children it also helpsShow MoreRelatedThe National School Lunch Program Essay856 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction The National School Lunch Program began after the great depression. The government began to send farm commodities to schools in hopes of helping malnourished children. The National School Lunch Program provides nutrition to children across the United States. There are strict guidelines that school districts must follow to be eligible to participate in the National School Lunch Program funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. What is wrong with school lunches? The monies receivedRead MoreThe National School Lunch Program1258 Words   |  6 Pagesreceive at school. However, the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) Food and Nutrition Guidelines provide more problems for schools and they need to be eradicated, as well as repealing the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act. The NSLP is â€Å"a federally assisted meal program operating in public and nonprofit private schools and residential child care institutions. It provides nutritionally balanced, low-cost or free lunches to children each school day. The program was established under the National School LunchRead MoreThe National School Lunch Program987 Words   |  4 Pagesstrives to provide healthier food for schools. Let’s Move! is meant to empower those who wish to make a difference and reminds us that everybody has a role to play when it comes to reducing childhood obesity. The Federal Government’s role also comes into play with the National School Lunch Program. The National School Lunch Program is a federally assisted meal program that operates in over 100,000 schools and child care facilities. Those who participate in this program get cash subsidies as well as foodRead MoreThe National School Lunch Program1616 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract The National School Lunch Program is a great resource for schools to use, to help provide children whom may not be able to afford their own lunches. The problem with the program though is that the recent changes to the requirements schools must follow make it difficult to provide lunches that are appealing and fulfilling to students. Schools also find that it is costing them more to try and follow these requirements and there is a lot more waste because students are not happy. TheRead MoreThe National School Lunch Program760 Words   |  4 PagesThe National School Lunch Program is a federally funded meal program operating in over 100,000 public. It provides nutritionally balanced, low†cost or free lunches to more than 31 million children each school day in 2012 based on the childs household income (USDA). The program is managed by the Food and Nutrition Service at the Federal level and by a State education agency at the state level. We will be looking at the statistics of the National Lunch Program for five local schools, and compareRead MoreThe National School Lunch Program Essay1640 Words   |  7 Pagesresulting in school absences.† (Karger, p 371) It is important for children to meet their full potential in order for society to continue thriving into the future. If children are not receiving an adequate education because they have an empty stomach, then they will not continue to higher education or they will do poorly. In order to combat hunger in children the federal government responded with several major programs. Two of the programs the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School BreakfastRead MoreThe National School Lunch Program Essay1928 Words   |  8 PagesThe National School Lunch Program (NSLP), originally initiated in 1946 under the name the National School Lunch Act, has served in excess of 224 billion school lunches to children throughout the United States since its inception (National School Lunch Program). The goals of the program include serving a school lunch that meets certain nutritional requirements and is available at low or no cost to eligible students (National School Lunch Program). While the program has undergone many changes overRead MoreThe Goals Of The National School Lunch Program Essay814 Words   |  4 Pages According to the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act, the goal of the National School Lunch Program is â€Å"to safeguard the health and well-being of the Nation’s children and to encourage the domestic consumption of nutritious agricultural commodities and other food, by assisting the States in providing an adequate supply of foods and other facilities for the establishment, maintenance, operation, and expansion of nonprofit school lunch programs†.1 NASW Code of Ethics One of theRead MoreConsistency in the National School Lunch Program Essay2063 Words   |  9 PagesClaim The National School Lunch Program needs to standardize and regulate their set nutritional standards at all schools to help curb the growing prevalence of childhood obesity and other weight related diseases. What is the National School Lunch Program? â€Å"The National School Lunch Program, or NSLP, is a federally assisted meal program operating in over 101,000 public and non†profit private schools and residential childcare institutions.† (National school lunch, 2011) This government-run programRead MorePreventing Childhood Obesity And The National School Lunch Program865 Words   |  4 PagesAccording to the SNDA, only 35% of schools meet with the SMI recommended calories. However, the NSLP instead of recognizing that schools are not meeting with the recommended intake because of its overconsumption of commodities, they blame the students and the schools for the lack of healthful practices. For example, Allen and Guttmann (2002) in Neoliberalization from the ground up states how the introduction of the wellness policy under the NSLP recognizes that schools are faulty for nutritional goals

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Fahrenheit 451 (936 words) Essay Example For Students

Fahrenheit 451 (936 words) Essay Fahrenheit 451Light, especially fire, and darkness are significantly reoccurring themes inFahrenheit 451. Guy Montag, the main character, is a fireman, but in thisfuturistic world the job description of a fireman is to start fires whereverbooks are found; instead of putting them out. Montag takes a journey from aliterary darkness to a knowledgeable light. This journey can be compared to theshort story Allegory of the Cave by Plato, in which a prisoner experiences asimilar journey. An example of light, in reference to knowledge, occurs justafter Montag meets Clarisse for the first time. When they reached herhouse all its lights were blazing (9). Since Montag had rarely seen thatmany house lights on, I interpreted those lines as saying that house isfull of knowledge and enlightenment; not like the rest of the houses around herewhich are always dark. Clarisse went on to explain to Montag that hermother, father, and uncle were just sitting around and talking. This was alsosomething that wasnt very commonplace in the city. Fire is an important elementof symbolism in Fahrenheit 451. Fire consumes minds, spirits, men, ideas, andbooks. Fire plays two very different roles in this book. The role of adestructive, devouring, and life ending force, and the role of a nourishingflame. The first role that fire plays in Fahrenheit 451 is apparent from thevery beginning of Bradburys novel. IT WAS A PLEASURE TO BURN. It was apleasure to see things eaten, to see things blackened and changed (3). Inthese first two sentences, Bradbury creates a sense of curiosity and ironybecause in the story, change is something controlled and unwanted by thegovernment and society, so it is very unlikely that anything in Guy Montagssociety could be changed. The burning described at this point represents theconstructive energy that later leads to catastrophe. A clear picture of firemenis first seen when the narrator says, With his symbolic helmet numbered451 on his stolid head, and his eyes all oran ge flame with the thought of whatcame next, he flicked the igniter and the house jumped up in a gorging fire thatburned the evening sky red and yellow and black (3). Fahrenheit 451 is thetemperature at which books burn and is symbolically written on the firemenshelmets, tanks, and in the firestation. During a moment of revelation Montagcomes upon an interesting idea about fire and the burning of books that takesplace. He states, the sun burnt every day. It burnt timeSo if he burntthings with the firemen and the sun burnt Time, that meant that everythingburnt! One of them had to stop burning. The sun wouldnt, certainly(141). With this comment Montag realizes that he can no longer be a book burner,but that he has to preserve books. After this revelation, Montag happens uponfire once again. That small motion, the white and red color, a strangefire because it meant a different thing to him. It was not burning. It waswarming He hadnt known fire could look this way (145-46). Montagwas no w seeing fire as a nourishing, life giving flame. The title of the thirdpart of the book, Burning Bright, shows that even while the city isstill burning brightly from the wars destruction, the spirit of all the exilemen is also burning brightly. This signifies a future of hope and optimism. Throughout Fahrenheit 451 Montag goes through a transformation from book burnerto book preserver. Montag mirrors the path taken by one of prisoners inPlatos Allegory of the Cave. The prisoner went through a metamorphosis fromillusion to wisdom. In the Allegory of the Cave there are many prisoners; allwith their arms, legs, and heads shackled so that they could only look forward. .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5 , .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5 .postImageUrl , .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5 , .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5:hover , .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5:visited , .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5:active { border:0!important; } .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5:active , .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5 .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uf659728cf3257e3af7b24488cf3ab7e5:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Will To Power By Friedrich Nietzsche EssayThis represents how the totalitarian government in Fahrenheit 451 forceseveryone to see only the governments beliefs and views. While in this cave,there is a fire above and behind them, and between them and the fire is a wall. This wall is acting like a screen in a puppet show. There are other men walkingalong the wall carrying statues and carvings of animals which appear over thewall. This symbolizes Montags job of burning books and his helping to keepothers in the dark; only showing them what the government wants them to see andknow. The prisoners, like Montag and others in his society, can only see theshadows of the statues along the cave wall, and this is what they believe to bethe truth. Somehow one of the prisoners is able to escape, and at first he is inpain. Just as Montag escaped the beliefs and views of his society, with the helpfrom Clarisse and Faber. At first, Montag could not and would not accept books,but he began to see the power they had, he began to see the truth. This paincomes from the light (truth), and the prisoner is compelled to look away fromthe light, and to take refuge in the objects which he could see. Once again, theprisoner carries himself towards the cave entrance, and this t ime he sees thesun. At first, the sun hurts him also, but the prisoner grows accustomed to thelight. The same way Montag felt when he first learned the truth; it hurt to knowthat all he knew was false, but he began to accept it and he liked it and wantedto share this knowledge with others. After learning the truth of the cave, theprisoner also tries to return to the others that are held captive and free themto show them the truth. However, they only believe what their illusions, and theprisoner is ridiculed, called crazy, and exiled from the cave. This alsohappened to Montag when he tried to share his knowledge with others; such as hiswife, her friends, and Captain Beatty.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Orientalism Essay Example

Orientalism Paper Orientalism is a field of study which is at style of thought based upon an ontological and epistemological distinction made between the Orient and the Occident. It invokes a flexible positioning superiority in which Europe is put into a number of positions of superiority. It is part of an overall campaign of self-affirmation, belligerency, and outright war, (Said xix) however, and in this we see the religious implications. For much of its history Orientalism carries within it the stamp of a problematic European attitude toward Islam. (Said 73) Islam was a threat to a Christian Europe the Ottoman Empire lay geographically close to Christian lands, so there was not only the threat of different religious ideas but also the treat of a mighty military and political power. It resulted in a historical fear of Islam. Orientalism was essentially an attempt to domesticate that threat, but the Orient needed first to be known, then invaded and possessed, then re-created by scholars, soldiers, and judges who disinterred forgotten languages, histories, races, and cultures in order to posit them as the true classical Orient that could be used to judge and rule the modern Orient. (91-92) The Occident responded with the creation of an imaginative geography within which Islam could be confined. Orientalism legitimates a vocabulary, a universe of representative discourse peculiar to the discussion and understanding of the Orient (Said 71) and it consisted of a set of representative figures, or tropes. (Said 71) We will write a custom essay sample on Orientalism specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Orientalism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Orientalism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This does not go to say that Orientalism formed the cornerstone of truth of the Orient, but rather that it was Western ignorance which becomes more refined and complex, not some body of positive Western knowledge which increases in size and accuracy. (Said 62) As a field of knowledge it is a closed body of knowledge in which objects are what they are because they are what they are, for once, for all time, for ontological reasons that no empirical material can either dislodge or alter. (Said 70) The fact that Orientalism derived its authentic from its unchanging nature would cause problems with the emergence of the 19th century. Orientalism would have to change to survive with the times. There was disillusionment when it was realized that the classical Orient did not properly represent the actual Orient. It became what was known as the betrayed dream. What was realized was that one could only really use generalities to describe the Orient in order not to conflict with the specific actualities; it was almost as if a bin called Oriental existed into which all the authoritative, anonymous, and traditional Western attitudes to the East were dumped unthinkingly. (Said 102) These generalities created an aura of eccentricity surrounding the Orient, by which the Orient becomes a living tableau of queerness. (Said 103) This tableau was designated as a disciplined way from which the Orientalist could approach it; essentially, its foreignness [could] be translated, its meanings decoded, its hostility tamed. (Said 103) From this arose the tactics of modern Orientalism. Orientalism was reconstituted, redeployed, redistributed and in the secular framework. (Said 121) There were four components to this process, the end product being naturalized supernaturalism. The first component was due to the Orient expanding past the Islamic lands. This simply goes to say that there were more lands under scrutiny and a binary opposition between Islam and Christianity was no longer possible; there were too many cultures and religions that could come into interaction. All such widening horizons had Europe firmly in the privileged center, as main observer. (Said 117) Secondly, there was the component of historical confrontation that no longer was viable; the Orient was simply not viewed in a confrontational light. Rather, it was viewed as an (inferior) object of study. It involved a greater involvement with source material and confronting the Orients peculiarities with objective detachment. The third component deals with the notion of historicism. This idea promoted the belief that the Occident could penetrate the Orient on the precedent that all cultures are presumably organically and internally coherent historicism encourages such an intellectual penetration. This was done by sympathetic identification by which the Orientalist saw the elements of kinship between himself and the Orient, and this supposedly gave him access to the Orient. Lastly, the core of modern Orientalism rested in the practice of classification. This process involved reducing vast numbers of objects to a smaller number of orderable and describable types [that] belonged to a system, a network of related generalizations. (Said 119) Thus, when an Oriental was referred to, it was in terms of such generic universals as his primitive state, his primary characteristics, his particular spiritual background. (Said 120) Also, this process was carried out in the name of objectivity and claimed its authority from such scientific procedures, rather than on religious superiority as the classical Orientalism did. This was the essence of naturalized supernaturalism, by which religious structures were recast in the secular. From this it is very evident that Orientalism is a man-made field and not a universal or pure truth. Orientalist disciplines were changing (even as Orientalism claimed the values of an unchanging, classical Orient) into their modern form, in which power welt in the new, scientifically advanced techniques of philology and anthropological generalization. (Said 121) Silvestre de Sacy was the forerunner of modern Orientalism: his work virtually put before the profession an entire systematic body of texts, a pedagogic practice, a scholarly tradition, and an important link between Oriental scholarship and public policy. (Said 124) He was responsible for his revisionist projects: all of his work was presented as a revised extract of the best that had already been done, said, or written. (Said 125) He was reproducing the Orient for the Occident, but only those parts that he deemed useful or important; these were carefully selected and arranged topics from the greater body of Oriental knowledge. He believed that the vastly rich (in space, time, and cultures) Orient cannot be totally exposed, only its most reprehensive parts need be. (Said 125) Sacy was thus in a position of authority that modern Orientalism so proudly touts he was the one that chose what was important from the Orient and his choices gave semiotic power to the topics that would now represent the entire Orient.